Hybrid and Electric Vehicle Engineering Academy ACAD06

SAE Engineering Academies provide comprehensive and immersive training experiences, helping new and re-assigned engineers become proficient and productive in a short period of time. The Hybrid and Electric Vehicle Engineering Academy covers hybrid and electric vehicle engineering concepts, theory, and applications relevant to HEV, PHEV, EREV, and BEV for the passenger car industry. While the theory and concepts readily apply to the commercial vehicle industry as well, the examples and applications used will apply primarily to the passenger car industry.

Learning Objectives

Upon completion of the academy, participants will be able to:

  • Define and analyze fundamental electrochemistry of battery operation and performance requirements for HEV, PHEV, EREV and full electric vehicle applications
  • Estimate the size of a cell to meet a specific requirement
  • Create a cradle-to-grave, or cradle-to-use list of materials used in any type of automotive battery
  • Compute the temperature response of battery cell and pack assemblies for a simple model
  • Describe the functions performed by a Battery Management System (BMS)
  • Explain different approaches to estimating state of charge, state of health, power and energy
  • Apply the operation of brushless dc and induction motors to HEV and EV vehicles
  • Define the torque speed curves for motors and the application to electric and hybrid electric vehicles
  • Describe the features of buck, boost, and Transformer converters
  • Compare and contrast the various industry and regulatory standards for hybrid vehicle components, batteries, and charging systems
  • Describe the main hybrid and electric vehicle development considerations and performance requirements for various vehicle system
  • Identify how to define key vehicle system requirements and select and size system components that best meet those requirements

Who Should Attend

Individuals who already have a basic understanding of hybrid and/or electric vehicles who are seeking to increase their knowledge and understanding of hybrid vehicle system applications, including mechanical and electrical application engineers, design engineers, project managers, and other individuals who are working with or transitioning to hybrid-electric powertrain development, will find this academy particularly helpful.


An engineering degree is highly recommended, but not required.  This Academy does not cover basic electrical concepts and assumes that the attendee already understands such concepts (voltage, current, resistance, capacitance, inductance, etc.)  In order to understand concepts discussed, all participants are required to have driven an HEV prior to attending the academy.

Please be advised that this course may involve one or more of the following: driving and/or riding in a vehicle; participating in a vehicle demonstration; and/or taking part in an offsite tour using outside transportation.  You will be required to sign a waiver on-site and produce a valid driver’s license from your state/country of residence

Attendees are asked to bring a calculator for in-class exercises.

You must complete all course contact hours and successfully pass the learning assessment to obtain CEUs.

Course Outline

Systems Integration and Analytical Tools

  • Vehicle Development Process Overview
    • Requirements Development
  • Hybrid Components and Architectures
    • Major components in hybrid powertrain
    • Controls integration
    • Component sizing and integration tradeoffs
    • Hybrid architecture overview
  • System Design and Development Considerations
    • Vehicle integration (ex. performance, drivability, NVH)
    • Powertrain integration (ex. energy, power, efficiency, torque, thermal management)
    • HV/LV electrical systems (ex. safety, DC/AC voltage, charging system, efficiency, cables, connectors, fuses,
    • Chassis (ex. braking, vehicle dynamics, powertrain to chassis dynamics, ride and handling, steering, fuel system)
    • Displays/information (ex. messages, information aids, usage efficiency aids)
    • HVAC (ex. HV compressor, HV heater, cabin comfort, efficiency considerations)
  • Verification and Validation Considerations
    • Verification and validation test requirements and planning
    • Component test considerations
    • System test considerations
    • Fleet testing
  • Summary/Conclusions

Electric Motors

  • Maxwell’s equations 
  • Magnetic Circuits
    •  The basic concepts of magnetic circuits
    • Application of Governing laws
    • Magnetic Force/Torque Production
    • Non-Linear magnetic material behavior
    • Losses and Efficiency 
  • Fundamental Theory, Performance, Construction & Control
    • Transformers
    • Synchronous Machines
      • Wound-field
      • Permanent Magnet
    • Reluctance Machines
      • Switched Reluctance
      • Synchronous Reluctance
    • Flux Modulating Machines
    • DC Machines
  • Non- Electromagnetic Design & System Considerations

Safety, Testing, Regulations, and Standards

  • Standards Roadmap for Electric Vehicles
    • – SAE; – UL; – IEC
    • – Performance and Safety
  • Applicable Battery Standards
    • Battery Transportation
    • Battery Safety
    • Battery Pack: SAE J2464/J2929
    • Compare and Contrast the various industry standards
  • Vehicle and Charging Standards
    • FMVSS
    • Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) Descriptions
    • Governing Bodies for Regulations
    • Certification Requirements and Options
  • Performance Standards
    • Charging interfaces
    • SAE J1772 charge protocol
    • Battery Characterization and life cycle testing
  • Video Demonstrations
    • Mechanical Shock
    • Short Circuit
    • Overcharge
    • Fire Exposure

Power Electronics

  • Introduction – Why Power Electronics?
  • Overview of Power Density
    • Effects of air vs. liquid cooling
    • Effects of efficiency
  • Converter Topologies
    • Buck, boost, transformer
  • Inverter Topology
    • 6-pack inverter
    • Space Vector Control
  • Sources of Loss in Power Electronics
    • Conduction, switching, leakage, and control losses
  • Power Semiconductors
    • Insulated Gate Bi-polar Transistor (IGBT)
    • Metal-Oxide-Silicon Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) 
    • Emerging technologies: Moore’s law, silicon carbide 

Battery Management Systems

  • Block Diagram – Main Functions of a BMS
  • Sensing Requirements
    • Cell/module level: cell voltage, cell/module temperature, (humidity, smoke, air/fluid flow)
    • Pack level: current, pre-charge temperature, bus voltage, pack voltage, isolation
  • Control Requirements
    • Contactor control, pre-charge circuitry
    • Thermal system control
  • Cell Balancing: Active versus passive, strategies
  • Estimation Requirements
    • Strategies: different approaches and benefits of model- based approach
    • How to create a model via cell tests
    • State of Charge estimation
    • State of Health estimation
    • Power estimation
    • Energy estimation (range estimation)
  • Electronics Topologies
    • Monolithic versus master/slave versus daisy-chain
    • Implications of battery pack topologies: parallel strings versus series modules
    • Available chipsets for designing electronics
  • Other Requirements: CAN communication, data logging, PH/EV charger control, failure modes/detection, thermal systems control
  • Future Directions for Battery Management, Degradation Control

Lithium-Ion Battery Design

  • Overview of Battery Design
  • Major Cell Components
  • Overview of Battery Modeling and Simulation
  • Lithium-Ion Cell Design Example

Lithium-Ion Battery Modeling

High Voltage Battery Charging Methods & Some Aspects of Battery Pack Design

  • Basic Battery Reactions
  • Overcharge Reactions
  • Consequences of Overcharge
  • Design Considerations
  • Thermal Considerations
  • Charging Infrastructure/methods
  • Basic Definitions
  • Conductive Charging
    • Method
    • Standards
  • Inductive Charging
  • DC Charging
    • Definition
    • Issues: Infrastructure, Thermal, and Life
  • Grid Infrastructure
    • Basic infrastructure
    • Grid interactions: bi-directional communication and power flow
  • Aspects of Battery Pack Design

Thermal Management for Batteries and Power Electronics

  • Introduction
    • Thermal control in vehicular battery systems: battery performance degradation at low and high temperatures
    • Passive, active, liquid, air thermal control system configurations for HEV and EV applications
  • Brief Review of Thermodynamics, Fluid Mechanics, and Heat Transfer
    • First Law of Thermodynamics for open and closed systems; internal energy, enthalpy, and specific heat
    • Second Law of Thermodynamics for closed systems; Tds equations, Gibbs function
    • Fluid mechanics: laminar vs. turbulent flow, internal flow relationships, Navier Stokes equations
    • Heat transfer: simple conduction, convection, and radiation relationships; Nusselt number relationships for convective heat transfer; energy equation
  • Battery Heat Transfer
    • Introduction to battery modeling: tracking current demand, voltage, and State of Charge as functions of time for given drive cycles
    • Development of thermodynamic relationships for cell heat generation
    • Lumped cell and pack models for transient temperature response to drive cycles
    • Model parametric study results
  • Thermal Management Systems
    • Overall energy balance to determine required flow rates
    • Determination of convection and friction coefficients for air and liquid systems in various geometric configurations: flow around cylinders, flow between plates, flow through channels
    • Development of a complete thermal system model and parametric study results
    • Temperature control and heat transfer using phase change materials
  • Thermal Management of Power Electronics


SaeedSaeed Siavoshani
Dr. Siavoshani is a pioneer expert in the area of vehicle electrification. He is also an adjunct professor at Wayne State University where he teaches several comprehensive electric vehicle courses. In addition he serves as the hybrid academy lead instructor & the Chief Industry Advisor for SAE Professional Development Seminars and Academies. Dr. Siavoshani has worked for Eaton, Siemens, the Dow Chemical Company, General Motors Corporation and Ford Motor Company. During his career, he has been instrumental in the development of new technologies in the area of vehicle electrification. Dr. Siavoshani has led the development of a new generation of power electronics as well as the battery packs for electric vehicles. he has also helped to build & implement a balance among vehicle attributes such as electric vehicle power demand, battery pack SoX, energy consumption, NVH, thermal management and weight reduction. He has been granted several patents and was presented the SAE Forest R. McFarland Award for distinction in professional development and education. Dr. Siavoshani has a Ph.D. in system engineering.

DavideDavide Andrea
Davide Andrea is an expert in Li-ion battery technology. He is the author of the book, “Battery Management Systems for Large Lithium-Ion Battery Packs” and the soon to be published book, “Li-ion Batteries and Applications”. He is a forensic expert in Li-ion battery incidents, and an expert witness in matters of Li-ion technology. Davide has 40 years of experience in electronics design, and has been in the Li-Ion battery management system field for more than 15 years. He founded Elithion with the goal of making his Lithium Ion Battery Management System technology available to an industry searching for Li-Ion BMS solutions. Davide holds a BS is Electrical Engineering and Computer Science from the University of Colorado.

RichRich Byczek
Rich Byczek is the Technical Lead for Electric Vehicle and Energy Storage at Intertek where he is responsible for the technical development of Intertek’s EV and Battery testing labs across North America, Europe and Asia. For the past 5 years, Mr. Byczek was the Operations Manager of the Livonia site, directly responsible for all battery performance, safety and transportation testing, as well as reliability and certification testing of Electric Vehicle charging stations and support electronics. Mr. Byczek has significant experience in product validation, EMC testing, and automotive product development. He sits on several performance and safety standards committees related to batteries and electric vehicle systems. Mr. Byczek has a B.S.in Electrical Engineering from Lawrence Technological University.

GeneGene Liao
Dr. Gene Liao is currently Professor and Director of Electric Transportation Technology Program at Wayne State University, where he also manages the Electric Propulsion Integration Laboratory. Dr. Liao is experienced in the areas of hybrid drivetrains and automotive manufacturing. Prior to Wayne State, he worked as a practicing engineer for over fifteen years with General Motors and Ford Motor Company. Dr. Liao has research and teaching interests in the areas of electric-drive vehicle simulation and development, vehicle dynamics, and automotive components design and manufacturing. He has published more than 100 journal and conference papers, and two book chapters in these areas. He is the PI and co-PI for several federal and state funded projects in electric-drive vehicle and advanced energy storage systems, and has developed and offered several professional development programs in vehicle electrification and advanced energy storage for industry. Dr. Liao has been invited to serve as a proposal reviewer for the US National Science Foundation, and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada. He also serves on the advisory council for the Michigan Academy for Green Mobility Alliance (MAGMA). He holds a Doctor of Engineering in Manufacturing Engineering from the University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, Mechanical Engineer from Columbia University, M.S. from the University of Texas at Arlington, and B.S. from National Central University (Taiwan), both in Mechanical Engineering.

Manoj ShahManoj R. Shah
 Manoj R. Shah, works as a consultant and is a professor in Electrical, Computer and Systems Engineering Department of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY.
He is a Life Fellow of IEEE, received his B.Tech. (Honors) from Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, India. He received MS and Ph.D. from Virginia Tech. He retired in May 2016 as a Principle Engineer from GE’s Global Research Center after almost 34 years with GE! He spent his career working on electrical devices with the main focus on electric machines. He has ~70 US and many foreign patents with several pending. He has also authored/co-authored over 45 technical papers; some of them have been prize papers. He has given many invited talks internationally. He has been active in the Electric Machines area for IEEE in various capacities and is a past chair of our Schenectady section. He received the 2015 IEEE Gerald Kliman award, the 2012 GE-GRC Coolidge Fellowship award, the 2012 IEEE Nikola Tesla award and the 1991 GE-Power’s Most Outstanding Technical Contribution Award.

Robert SpotnitzRobert Spotnitz
Robert Spotnitz leads Battery Design LLC, a company that provides consulting and software for battery developers and users.  He founded Battery Design in 1999 and developed Battery Design Studio®, a virtual environment for battery design and simulation (see www.batdesign.com). Over the last decade he participated in the start-up of two battery developers: American Lithium Energy Corp. and Enovix. Prior to that, he was Director of Advanced Product Development at PolyStor Corp. where he led efforts to develop large lithium-ion batteries for hybrid electric vehicles. Before that he was a Staff Engineer for Hoechst’s Celgard Division where he built from the ground-up the Battery Applications Development Center and helped commercialize the tri-layer battery separator and also worked at the R&D center of W.R. Grace & Co where he co-invented multi-layer battery separators, as well as a number of electrochemical processes. Dr. Spotnitz provides tutorials on batteries for the Advanced Automotive Battery Conference, the Battery Power conferences, the EIS Short Course, as well for the Electrochemical Society. He has 18 patents and 34 publications (including 3 book chapters). He is a member of the International Society of Electrochemistry and the Electrochemical Society. He has a B.S. in Chemical Engineering from Arizona State University, a M.S. in Computer Science from Johns Hopkins, and a Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering from the Univ. WI-Madison.

CaishengCaisheng Wang
Dr. Caisheng Wang received the BSEE and MSEE degrees from Chongqing University, China, in 1994 and 1997, respectively, and the Ph.D. degree from Montana State University (MSU), Bozeman in 2006, all in electrical engineering. From 1997 to 2002, he worked as a research engineer and later the vice Chair of the Department of High Voltage Engineering at Zhejiang Electric Power Research Institute, Hangzhou, China. In August 2006, he joined Wayne State University (WSU), Detroit, MI, where he now is a Professor with the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department. Supported by NSF, DOE, Great Lake Protection Foundation (GLPF), WSU, and other sources with a total of $10 million, he has been teaching and conducting research in the areas of renewable/alternative energy systems, power systems, power electronics, distributed generation, Microgrid and Smart Grid, and electric vehicles. He has authored/co-authored over 180 journal and conference papers, several book chapters, and two books with high citations. According to Google Scholar, the total number of citations to his publications is about 10,000 so far. His research work has been reported by national media such as Associated Press as well as local media, including WDET (http://wdet.org/).

He has served as an associate editor for several international journals, including IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, Electric Power Components and Systems, SAE Journal of Electronics; Electrical System for Passenger Cars, and served as a grant review panelist for NSF and the Department of Energy. He has won awards including Excellence in Teaching of College of Engineering, Excellence in Teaching of the Division of Engineering Technology at WSU, IEEE PES EDPG Prize Paper Award, an MSU Foundation Graduation Achievement Nomination Award, and an Honorary Citizenship, City of Bozeman, MT, Award. He is a Senior Member of IEEE, and a member of IEEE Power and Energy Society, Power Electronics Society, Industrial Electronics Society, and Industry Applications Society.

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